SubjectsSubjects(version: 953)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
   Login via CAS
General chemistry (for teachers) - MC280P58
Title: Obecná chemie (pro uč. chemie, uč.biologie, biol. obory)
Czech title: Obecná chemie (pro uč. chemie, uč.biologie, biol. obory)
Guaranteed by: Department of Chemistry Education (31-280)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2020
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 6
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/2, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: 95
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: cancelled
Language: Czech
Level: basic
Note: priority enrollment if the course is part of the study plan
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Petr Šmejkal, Ph.D.
Is incompatible with: MC260P54, MC260P119, MC260P33
In complex pre-requisite: MC260P01M, MC260P112
Opinion survey results   Examination dates   Schedule   
Annotation -
General chemistry - basic course for students of education in chemistry, education in biology and of biology- lecture and seminary. The course provides the most important general chemistry chapters and fundamentals of physical chemistry required for the basic courses in other branches of chemistry. Structure of atoms (atomic nucleus, radioactivity, atomic orbitals, periodicity of element properties) and molecules (chemical bond, molecular orbitals, hybrid orbitals, types of bonding). Electric, magnetic and optical properties of compounds and materials, methods of atomic and molecular spectroscopy. States of matter (gases, liquids, solids). Chemical kinetics (fundamentals). Equilibrium state and fundamentals of thermodynamics (laws of thermodynamics, thermochemistry, afinity of reactions). Phase equilibria (chemical potencial, Gibbs´s phase law, examples of important equilibria). Chemical equilibrium (kinetic approach, Guldberg´s -Waage´s law, equilibrium constant, reaction mixture composition and its dependence on reaction conditions). Introduction to electrochemistry (electrolytes, dissociation, pH, acids and bases - dissociation constant, salts - solubility and hydrolysis, buffers, calculation of pH of electrolyte solutions, electrode potencial and equilibria, types of electrodes).
The course is taught in English for ERASMUS students in the consultations form
Last update: Vlčková Blanka, prof. RNDr., CSc. (12.06.2014)
Literature -

J. Vacík: Obecná chemie, SPN 1986 
P.W.Atkins: General Chemistry, Oxford University Press 1996 
J.Sedláček a kol.: Příklady z obecné chemie, Karolinum 2010 

Last update: Šmejkal Petr, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (29.10.2019)
Requirements to the exam -
To get the credit, it is necessary to pass tests during the semester with 60% points.
Examination: Written part: minimum 62% of points is a prerequisite for oral part. The oral part of the examination includes written preparation.
Last update: Šmejkal Petr, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (29.10.2019)
Syllabus -
1. Introduction - Basic concepts for characterization of substances and their systems, quantities and units. Basic chemical laws and principles. Dualistic nature of matter: matter and field.

2. Structure of atom - Structure of atomic nucleus, nuclides and isotopes. Nuclear stability and natural and artificial radioactivity. Electron shell of an atom: quantum mechanical model, atomic orbitals and their representation. Laws of electron envelope construction and periodicity of properties of elements.

3. Structure of molecules - Quantum mechanical explanation of chemical bonds, molecular orbitals, polarity of bonds, hybrid orbitals. Covalent, ionic, coordination covalent and weak binding interaction. Binding interactions in biologically important molecules.

4. Structure and properties of substances - Electrical, magnetic and optical properties of substances and their importance for the study of the structure of substances (overview). Overview of atomic and molecular spectroscopy methods, their principles and applications. Examples of spectroscopic studies of biologically important molecules.

5. State of matter - Gaseous state: ideal and real gas, equations of state, liquefaction of gases and critical state. Liquid state: vapor pressure over liquid, surface tension and viscosity of liquids (overview). Solid state: crystalline and amorphous substances, bond types in crystals.

6. Chemical kinetics - Basic concepts of chemical kinetics. Isolated 1st and 2nd order reactions. Simultaneous reactions: reversible, sequential and lateral (overview). Dependence of reaction rate on temperature, reaction mechanisms, catalysis.
7. Chemical energy - Basic concepts, quantities and principles of thermodynamics and their applications. Thermal balance of chemical reactions, characterization of system order, conditions of spontaneous course of chemical reactions in various types of systems.

8. Equilibrium states - Chemical potential and Gibbs phase law. Examples of phase diagram construction and application of Gibbs law of phases. Phase interface equilibrium and its practical use. Chemical equilibrium, principle of dynamic equilibrium, Guldberg - Waag law, equilibrium constant. Equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, degree of conversion of reactant, influence of reaction conditions on degree of conversion.

9. Electrochemistry - Equilibria in electrolyte solutions: basic concepts - electrolytic dissociation, strong and weak electrolytes, ideal and real solutions, ionic strength of solutions, activity. Solubility of salts. Definition of pH. Dissociation of acids and bases, dissociation constant. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffers. Calculation of pH solutions of acids, bases, salts and buffers. Electrolysis. Electrode equilibria, electrode potential. Types of electrodes and their practical use.
Last update: Šmejkal Petr, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (29.10.2019)
Charles University | Information system of Charles University |