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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Optics - NAFY010
Title: Optika
Guaranteed by: Department of Condensed Matter Physics (32-KFKL)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 7
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/2, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech, English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Petr Němec, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Basic course of optics with the emphasis on applied optics. Synopsis: Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, diffraction phenomena, interference, geometrical optics, optical instruments, propagation of light in anisotropic media, wave-corpuscular dualism, interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, Fourier optics, principles of fiber optics, introduction to photonics.
Last update: T_KFES (29.04.2016)
Aim of the course -

Semester course in optics, which is part of the basic physics course. The lecture is intended especially for students of the 2nd year of bachelor's studies, or for students of higher years, who are interested in acquiring knowledge needed for the practical use of optics.

Last update: Němec Petr, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (11.05.2023)
Course completion requirements -

To be awarded credit, 2 credit tests must be successfully written. The credit must be obtained before registering for the exam.

Last update: Němec Petr, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (11.05.2023)
Literature -

1. E. Hecht: Optics, Addison Wesley, 4th edition, San Francisco. 2002.

2. B. E. A. Saleh, M.C, Teich: Fundamentals of Photonics, John Wiley & sons, inc., New York, 1991.

3. M. Born, E. Wolf: Principles of Optics, Cambridge University Press, 7th extended edition, Cambridge 2003.

Last update: Němec Petr, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (21.06.2018)
Requirements to the exam -

The exam is oral. The exam requirements correspond to the course syllabus.

Last update: Němec Petr, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (11.05.2023)
Syllabus -

1. Electromagnetics waves.
Electromagnetic origin of light, spectral regions of electromagnetic waves and their utilization.

Speed of light measurement.

Maxwell equations, boundary conditions.

Propagation of electromagnetic wave in materials, wave equation. Plane and spherical electromagnetic waves, their properties.

Superposition principle.

Complex representation of monochromatic wave. Helmholtz equation.

Energy, intensity and radiation pressure of light. Polarization of light.

Reflection and refraction of plane waves on plane interface, Fresnel formulae. Dipole radiation.

2. Quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic waves.
Spectrum of electromagnetic wave, Fourier analysis.

Phase and group velocities.

Two-beam interference. Multiple-beam interference.

Young`s experiment. Antireflection coatings.

Optical interferometers.

Temporal and spatial coherence of light.

3. Diffraction phenomena.
Huygens-Fresnel`s principle. Babinet principle.

Fraunhofer diffraction. Optical diffraction grating.

Fresnel diffraction. Fresnel zones.

Fourier optics. Principles of holography.

4. Geometrical and instrumental optics.
Short-wave approximation, eiconal equation, light ray.

Huygens` principle, Lagrange-Poincaré integral invariant, Fermat`s principle.

Paraxial optics. Optical imaging by reflection and refraction on a spherical interface.

Imaging equations.

Mirrors, lenses, combinations of imaging.

Optical imaging instruments (magnifier glasses, microscope, telescope).

Aberrations (monochromatic and chromatic).

Spectral instruments, spectrometers (prism, grating) and interferometers.

Basics of radiometry and photometry.

5. Propagation of light in anisotropic media
Propagation of light in anisotropic media. Geometrical construction, indicatrix.

Application of birefringence: polarizers, and waveplates.

Anisotropy induced by strain, Kerr effect, Faraday effect and optical activity.

6. Wave-corpuscular dualism.
Spectrum of black-body radiation. Planck`s law, Wien’s law, Stefan-Boltzman law.

Photon. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect.

X-ray spectrum.

· De-Broglie waves.

7. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Propagation of light in conductive medium, complex index of refraction.

Dispersion. Relation between index of refraction and absorption coefficient. Lorentz theory of dispersion.

Elastic and non-elastic light scattering.

Principles of colors.

Absorption and emission. Stimulated and spontaneous transitions. Principles of laser.

8. Principles of fiber optics.
Guided light waves. Modes. Attenuation. Dispersion.

Types of optical fibers.

9. Introduction to photonics.
Sources and detectors of light.

Nonlinear optics. Nonlinear optical effects of 2nd and 3rd order.

Last update: Němec Petr, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (21.06.2018)
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