SubjectsSubjects(version: 945)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Physical chemistry for geologists - MC260P123
Title: Fyzikální chemie pro geology
Czech title: Fyzikální chemie pro geology
Guaranteed by: Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry (31-260)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 4
Examination process: winter s.:combined
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/1, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc.
Teacher(s): prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc.
Annotation -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (02.10.2023)
The lecture is directed predominantly for students in geological fields. It brings the base of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and electrochemistry for its use in sciences. In parallel with the lecture there are held Calculations in Physical Chemistry, where the understanding of the theoretical matters is trained.
Literature - Czech
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (17.02.2019)

P.W. Atkins: Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press

J. Dvořák, R. Brdička: Základy fysikální chemie, Academia, Praha

Requirements to the exam - Czech
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (23.10.2019)

For passing the subject the knowledge of physical chemistry in the scope presented at the lessons is requisite

1st examination
(i) Written exam - for passinng the 1st written exam at least half of maximum assesment is necessary. If not reached, the exam is evaluated as unsatisfactory.
(ii) Oral exam 


1st retake
(i) Written exam
(ii) Oral exam


2nd retake
Comissional oral examination

Syllabus -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (06.06.2019)

1. Basic terms

Matter and radiation, amount of substance, mol, Avogadro constant, extensive and intensive quantities, molar quantities, units of concentration. Mass and energy conservation laws, units of energy, energy of molecular movement - translation, rotation, vibration, thermal energy, equipartition principle of classical physics.


2. Properties of gases

States of substances, units of pressure and temperature, standard values of pressure and temperature, temperature scales, perfect gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases: distribution of speed, mean square speed, mean speed, most probable speed, mean energy, intermolecular collisions, collision frequency, collision density, mean free path, collision with surfaces.

Real gases: van der Waals equation, critical constants of real gases.


3. First law of thermodynamics

Internal energy, expansion work, reversible and irreversible processes, functions of state, enthalpy, heat capacities, expansion work in reversible and irreversible processes, isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of ideal gas.

Thermochemistry: enthalpy (heat) of fusion, boiling, sublimation, enthalpy (heat) of reaction, formation, combustion, dependence of reaction enthalpy on temperature, Hess law.


4. Second law of thermodynamics

Definition of entropy of system and environment, Clausius inequality, calculation of entropy, heat engines, heat pump, their efficiency, definition of Helmholtz and Gibbs energy, spontaneity and equilibrium of processes, thermodynamic equation of state, Maxwell equations, dependence of Gibbs energy on temperature and pressure. Definition of chemical potential of pure substance, chemical potential of ideal gas.


5. Pure substances

Solid substances, liquids, gases, phase changes, Gibbs law of phases, phase equilibria, Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, water vapour in air, relative humidity.


6. Mixtures

Partial molar quantities, partial molar volume, chemical potential of mixture, Raoult law, Henry law, colligative properties of solutions: elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, solubility. Boiling of mixture of liquids: distillation, rectification, phase diagrams p-x, T-x, azeotropic mixtures. Definition of activity, activity of mixture of gases, activity of liquid solution, mixing Gibbs function.


7. Chemical equilibria

Reaction Gibbs energy, standard reaction Gibbs energy, equilibrium constant, dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature (van't Hoff equation), dependence of equilibrium composition on pressure, calculation of equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria. Chemical equilibria of weak electrolytes, pH. Equilibrium electrochemistry: galvanic cell, electrode potential, reaction at electrodes, lithium cells.


8. Nonequilibrium transport



9. Rates of chemical reactions

Rates of reactions, rate law, rate constant, reaction order, reaction mechanism, kinetics of more complex reactions, radioactive decay.


A more detailed syllabus including equations is available at the Web page

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