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Course, academic year 2022/2023
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Function and chemistry of bioactive natural compounds - MC230P69
Title: Funkce a chemie bioaktivních přírodních látek
Czech title: Funkce a chemie bioaktivních přírodních látek
Guaranteed by: Department of Analytical Chemistry (31-230)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2020
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: winter s.:combined
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Pavlína Kyjaková, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): Mgr. Pavlína Kyjaková, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Karel Nesměrák, Ph.D. (28.10.2019)
The subject provides general information on chemical ecology and natural substances produced by animals and plants and having ecological function and / or physiological effect. The subject brings knowledge about chemical communication substances of animals (semiochemicals) and about plant secondary metabolites including substances produced by microorganisms. Emphasis is placed on explanation of ecological context and relationships between organisms. Students will gain an overview of research methods in chemical ecology, both chemical (sample acquisition, analytical methods, identification and structure determination of natural substances) and biological (biological tests, electrophysiological tests, demonstration of biological activity of natural substances). It will also bring basic information about the ways in which natural substances are biosynthesized in living organisms.
Literature -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Karel Nesměrák, Ph.D. (28.10.2019)

Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry. J. B. Harborne, 4th Edition, Academic Press, London 1994.

Procházka S., Šebánek J.. Regulátory rostlinného růstu. Academia, Praha 1997.

Karban R., Baldwin I. T.: Induced Responses to Herbivory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1997.

Methods in Chemical Ecology. Vol. 1. Chemical Methods. J. Millar & K. F. Haynes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London 1998, second printing 2000.

Methods in Chemical Ecology. Vol. 2. Bioassay Methods. J. Millar & K. F. Haynes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London 1998, second printing 2000.

Biosynthesis in Insects. E. D. Morgan, RSC, Cambridge, 2004.

Chemical Aspects of Biosynthesis. J. Mann, Oxford University Press, 1994, reprinted 2006.

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Karel Nesměrák, Ph.D. (28.10.2019)

The exam is combined, written test (7 questions, each consisting of 3-5 sub-questions) is followed by an oral exam focused on possible incorrectly answered or unanswered questions. Requirements for the written test and oral exam are given by the extent of the lecture. Sample test is provided to students at the end of lectures. For successful completion of the written test and oral examination is required at least 50% success rate.

Syllabus -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Karel Nesměrák, Ph.D. (28.10.2019)

Lesson 1: Chemical ecology - definition; semiochemicals - pheromones, cairomones, defenses; classification, examples of types of structures, application of pheromones in practice

Lesson 2: methods of sample preparation (isolation) in chemical ecology; methods for identifying and determining the structure of substances; methods for testing the biological activity of natural substances

Lesson 3: Examples of social insect pheromones, colony organization; pheromones of the species Homo sapiens; examples of pheromone synthesis

Lesson 4: Natural Dyes (Part 1) - Carotenoids, Quinones, Flavonoidy

Lesson 5: natural dyes (part 2) - pyrrole dyes, pterins, melanins; pollination chemistry, flower colors and floral scent, nectar and pollen; host plant signals; food attractants (phagostimulants) and insect detectors, oviposition stimulants

Lesson 6: Food preferences of vertebrates and humans; the chemical nature of the flavors (sweetness, hotness, bitterness); plant toxins (non-nitrogen) - function, classification according to structures, examples

Lesson 7: alkaloids - classification by structure type, occurrence and biological effects

Lesson 8: Induced Plant Defense - "SOS" Signals; allelopathy, plant and synthetic herbicides; phytoalexins and pathotoxins; plant and synthetic fungicides

Lesson 9: herbal substances as a model for synthetic insecticides, repellents and chemosterilants; insect growth, development and propagation regulators, insect hormones; juvenoids, juvenogens, antijuvenoids, ecdysteroids; plant growth regulators

Lesson 10-11: Antibiotics - classification by mechanism of action, by structure, by spectrum of activity and method of application

 
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