SubjectsSubjects(version: 953)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Spectrometric Methods - MC230P50
Title: Spektrometrické metody (kata)
Czech title: Spektrometrické metody (kata)
Guaranteed by: Department of Analytical Chemistry (31-230)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2017 to 2023
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 4
Examination process: summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:3/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Is provided by: MC230P04N
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: RNDr. Václav Červený, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): RNDr. Václav Červený, Ph.D.
doc. RNDr. Juraj Dian, CSc.
RNDr. Jakub Hraníček, Ph.D.
doc. RNDr. Petr Kozlík, Ph.D.
RNDr. Eliška Nováková, Ph.D.
Incompatibility : MC230P04N, MC230P45
Is incompatible with: MC230P04N
Annotation -
A basic overview in spectrometric methods used for chemical analyses. Principles of methods, interactions between the analyzed compounds and the electromagnetic radiation, instrumentation, typical measurement procedure and evaluation of results are explained in these lectures including listed examples of analytical applications.
Last update: Červený Václav, RNDr., Ph.D. (20.02.2018)
Literature -

I.Němcová, L.Čermáková, P.Rychlovský: Spektrometrické analytické metody I., Karolinum, Praha 2004 (1997).
I.Němcová, P.Engst, I.Jelínek, J.Sejbal, P.Rychlovský: Spektrometrické analytické metody II., Karolinum, Praha 1998.
E.D.Olsen: Modern Optical Methods of Analysis, McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 1975.
J.M.Hollas: Modern Spectroscopy, 4th Ed., J.Wiley, Chichester 2004.
P. Atkins, J. De Paula, J. Keeler, Atkins' Physical Chemistry, 12th Ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford 2023.
D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 12th Ed., J. Wiley,  2022.

Last update: Červený Václav, RNDr., Ph.D. (19.02.2024)
Requirements to the exam -

Everything that was taught is tested. Written exam - answering questions.

Last update: Nesměrák Karel, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (28.10.2019)
Syllabus -

Principle and scope of spectrometric methods: Properties of electromagnetic radiation. Energy states of atoms and molecules. Division of methods (interaction of radiation and matter with and without energy exchange).

Basic components of spectrometric instruments: Radiation sources. Dispersion system and auxiliary optics. Radiation detectors.

Analytical determinations using spectrometric methods: Determination of analyte concentration. Evaluation and errors of spectrometric measurements.

X-ray spectrometry: Theoretical principles (origin and characteristics of X-ray emission spectra, basic relationships). Methods using primary X-ray emission (EMA, PIXE), secondary radiation (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and radiation absorption. X-ray diffraction. Experimental arrangements and analytical applications of individual methods.

Atomic emission spectrometry (emission spectral analysis): Theoretical principles (formation and regularities of atomic emission spectra, spectral lines characteristic, basic relationships). Flame photometry, AES-ICP. ICP-MS. Experimental arrangement (excitation sources, optical parts of spectral instruments, radiation detection and signal registration) and analytical applications of all methods.

Atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry: Theoretical basis (principle of methods, basic relationships). Experimental setup (primary radiation sources, absorption medium, dispersion system, radiation detection and signal registration, background compensation). Analytical applications, interference in the AAS method. Comparison of the most used atomic spectrometric methods.

Molecular absorption spectrometry in the ultraviolet and visible range of radiation: Theoretical principles (transitions of electrons in inorganic and organic substances, metal complexes, CT - transitions). Experimental setup. Static measurement methods (colorimetry, photometry, spectrophotometry), dynamic methods (kinetic measurements, flow-through methods). Extraction spectrophotometry. Analytical applications.

Molecular luminescence spectrometry: Theoretical foundations of photoluminescence processes, electric dipole transitions, context of optical emission and absorption. Fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence. Basic photoluminescence characteristics – optical spectrum, lifetime, quantum yield and polarization. Emission and excitation luminescence spectrum. Influence of the structure of substances on the type of luminescence. Effect of solvent and solution pH, effect of heavy atoms. Experimental setup for measuring luminescence characteristics. Analytical applications.

Molecular absorption spectrometry in the infrared range of radiation: Theoretical principles (vibration of molecules, rotation of molecules, vibrational-rotational changes). Experimental arrangement - dispersion spectrometers (radiation sources, dispersion system, radiation detection) and interferometers (instruments with Fourier transformation). Transmission and reflection measurements, measurement techniques according to the state of the samples. Analytical applications - structure analysis, quantitative analysis.

Raman spectrometry: Theoretical principles (inelastic scattering of radiation, formation and regularities of Raman spectra, basic relationships). Experimental setup - dispersion devices, FT - Raman spectrometry. Analytical applications.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): Theoretical principles (magnetic moments of the nuclei, effect of magnetic field, basic relationships; chemical shift, spin interactions). Experimental arrangement - continuous measurement, FT - NMR. Analytical applications.

Electron paramagnetic (spin) resonance (EPR): Theoretical principles (systems with unpaired electrons, basic relationships; g-factor, hyperfine splitting). Experimental design, analytical applications.

Mass spectrometry: Theoretical basis (ionization, molecular ion formation, basic mechanisms of fragmentation, mass spectrum). Experimental arrangement (ion sources, mass analyzers, detectors). Connection of MS with separation methods. Analytical applications.

Refractometry and interferometry: Theoretical principles (refractive index, molar refraction). Refractometry - principle of the method, experimental arrangement. Interferometry - principle of the method, experimental arrangement. Analytical applications.

Polarimetry, spectropolarimetry: Theoretical basis (radiation polarization, optically active chiral substances, specific rotation). Optical rotational dispersion, circular dichroism. Experimental setup. Analytical applications.

Turbidimetry and nephelometry: Theoretical principles (elastic scattering of radiation in cloudy samples). Experimental setup, analytical applications.

Last update: Červený Václav, RNDr., Ph.D. (19.02.2024)
 
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