SubjectsSubjects(version: 945)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Plant Genetics - MB140P02
Title: Genetika rostlin
Czech title: Genetika rostlin
Guaranteed by: Department of Genetics and Microbiology (31-140)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2023 to 2023
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:oral
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: 5
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Level: specialized
Additional information:
Note: enabled for web enrollment
the course is taught as cyclical
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D.
Mgr. Hana Marková
RNDr. Olga Rothová, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D. (25.08.2013)
The purpose of the lecture is to provide students with specific characteristics of plant genome. Current information on the size, organization, structure, sequence types (coding vs non-coding, unique vs repetitive) and amplification of plant nuclear genome are presented. Students are also given a detailed review on plant mitochondrial and plastid genome (size, structure, organization, information content, regulation of gene expression). The genetics of plant reproduction and development is also included.
Literature -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D. (23.10.2019)

The presentations from the lectures can be obtained by the students personally from the lecturers.

For further study, the following journals are recommended: Trends in Plant Science, Annual Reviews of Plant Biology, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, New Phytologist.

Further recommended literature:

Buchanan B.B., Gruissem W., Jones R.L.: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

Jain H.K., Kharkwal M.C.: Plant Breeding. Mendelian to Molecular Approaches

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D. (23.10.2019)

The exam is combined (student´s presentation of assigned topic followed by the written exam during which students have to write answers to selected questions + if necessary, further verbal examination). Students should focus particularly on good understanding of main principles and possible relationships among the topics that are included in the lectures.

Syllabus -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Dana Holá, Ph.D. (04.09.2023)

The lectures are given in Czech language only.

1. Plant Nuclear Genome - Size and Organisation

Basic characteristics of plant nuclear genome. Genome size and its various expressions. C-value and what is it dependent on. Changes in genome size during evolution. Chromosomal organisation of genome. Inter- and intraspecific variability in chromosome numbers. B-chromosomes. Genome organisation, syntenny and colinearity and mechanisms of their disturbance. Gene families, uniqua and species-specific genes.

2. Plant Nuclear Genome - Physical Structure

Basic characteristics of plant chromatin. Histons and HMG proteins, their variants, histone chaperones, nucleosome assembly. Covalent modifications of histones, pc-G proteins. DNA methylation/demethylation, MBD proteins. Role of small regulatory RNAs in chromatin structure, RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM). Interaction of various proteins with histones and DNA. Chromatin changes during cell cycle, chromatin replication. Interphasic chromatin, chromosome territories, main chromosomal structures.

3. Plant Nuclear Genome - Information Content

Main components of plant nuclear genome - coding and non-coding DNA. Gens coding for proteins - number, basic characteristics, functional categories. rRNA and tRNA genes. Small housekeeping RNA genes, snRNA and snoRNA genes. Small regulatory RNA genes - miRNA, nat-miRNA, siRNA, ra-siRNA, nat-siRNA, ta-siRNA, lsi RNA and others. Formation, function and quantity regulation of small and long regulatory RNAs in plants.

4. Plant Nuclear Genome - Repetitive Sequences

Types and classification of repetitive sequences in plant nuclear DNA. Satellites, minisatellites and microsatellites. Centromeric and pericentromeric sequences and centromere structure and function. Telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and telomere structure and function. Transposable elements - types, basic characteristics, structure, mechanisms of transposition, impact on genome organization and gene expression in plants.

5. Plant Plastid Genome

Size, structure, information content and specific characteristics of gene expression. Interaction between nuclear and plastid genetic systems. Endosymbiotic theory, plastids in other groups of organisms. Similarities and differences among plastid genomes of higher plants and other organisms. Nucleomorf - structure and information content.

6. Plant Mitochondrial Genome

Size, structure, information content and specific characteristics of gene expression. Interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial genetic systems. Similarities and differences among mitochondrial genomes of higher plants and other organisms.

7. Amplification of Plant Nuclear Genome

Haploidy and polyploidy. Main characteristics of autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy, euploidy and aneuploidy, and various examples in higher plants. Cytological effects. Influence of haploidy and polyploidy on plant fertility, their use in plant breeding and research.

8. Interspecific Hybridization in Plants

Characterization of interspecific hybrids and their use in agronomy. Practical implications of interspecific hybridization for evolution of crop plants. Barriers of interspecific hybridization. Cytogenetics of interspecific hybrids and its association with their fertility.

9. Genetics of Plant Reproduction

Plant sex chromosomes. Genetic mechanisms associated with induction of flowering. Genetic and molecular analysis of flower development. Female and male gametophyte and sporophyte development. Genetics of pollen germination and fertilization, gametophytic and sporophytic self-incompatibility. Genetics of seed formation, embryo maturation and endosperm development. Expression of genes for storage proteins.

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