Physical Chemistry - GF199
Title: Fyzikální chemie
Guaranteed by: Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry (16-16110)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2021
Semester: summer
Points: 0
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: summer s.:written
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:28/28, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / 384 (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: (F,1.r.)
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Petra Pullmannová, Ph.D.
Classification: Pharmacy >
Co-requisite : GF105
Is pre-requisite for: GF308
Examination dates   SS schedule   
Annotation -
Physical chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject employing the knowledge of physics, chemistry, electrochemistry and quantum mechanics for the description of substances on the molecular level. This subject provides a necessary theoretical basis and enables students to acquire knowledge of principles of physical-chemical methods of measurement. This subject affords a fundamental knowledge necessary in study of follow-up subjects from the area of natural sciences as well as pharmaceutical disciplines. Topics: Introduction to the subject, Intermolecular forces and states of matter, Physico-chemical properties of substances, Photochemistry, Thermodynamics, Chemical equilibrium, Phase equilibrium, Reaction kinetics, Electrochemistry, Colloidal systems.
Last update: Pullmannová Petra, Mgr., Ph.D. (24.09.2021)
Course completion requirements -

Following conditions need to be fulfilled to gain the credit:

1. Completing all the tasks in the practical classes. Tasks missed for any reason need to be replaced in specially specified terms.
2. Successful submission of protocols from completed tasks.
3. Passing the credit test. The credit test consists of 2 computational tasks (for 25 points each, i.e. 50 points altogether). To pass the test, a student needs to obtain at least 20 points.

Last update: Pullmannová Petra, Mgr., Ph.D. (24.09.2021)
Literature - Czech


  • Kubíček, Vladimír. Výpočty z fyzikální chemie I. Praha: Karolinum, 2010, 71 s. ISBN 978-80-246-1806-7.
  • Kubíček, Vladimír. Praktická cvičení z fyzikální chemie. Praha: Karolinum, 2013, 58 s. ISBN 978-80-246-2203-3.
  • Lázníčková, Alice, Kubíček, Vladimír. Základy fyzikální chemie : vybrané kapitoly pro posluchače Farmaceutické fakulty. Praha: Karolinum, 2014, 168 s. ISBN 978-80-246-2791-5.

Last update: Pullmannová Petra, Mgr., Ph.D. (24.09.2021)
Syllabus -

Introduction to the subject

  • A content of physical chemistry and its relation to pharmaceutical disciplines.

Intermolecular forces and states of matter

  • binding and non-binding interactions
  • crystallography, X-ray diffraction, polymorphism, isomorphism
  • isotropy, anisotropy, liquid crystals.

Physico-chemical properties of substances, photochemistry

  • Polarity of substances, dipole moment, relative permitivity,
  • absorption of electromagnetic radiation, Lamber-Beer´s law,
  • atomic absorption and emission spectra
  • light absorption by molecules in UV, VIS and IR region,
  • molecular emission spectra (Raman phenomenon, fluorescence and phosphorescence)
  • photochemical reactions.


  • 0th law of thermodynamics, temperature.
  • 1st law of thermodynamics, internal energy and enthalpy, standard state, thermochemical functions, thermochemical laws.
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy, reversible and irreversible processes, Helmholtz and Gibbs energies, conception of absolute entropy.
  • 3rd law of thermodynamics.

Chemical equilibrium

  • Equilibrium constant, equilibrium degree of conversion and its control by reaction conditions, LeChatelier principle.
  • standard change of Gibbs energy during a reaction, the temperature dependence of equilibrium constant, van´t Hoff equations.

Phase equilibrium

  • Gibbs phase rule, one component system, phase diagram, Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
  • Binary mixtures (liquid – gas, liquid – liquid, liquid – solid), Henry´s law.
  • Solubility of solid substances, system solid substance – solvent.
  • Raoult´s law and its application, colligative properties, cryoscopy and ebullioscopy, osmotic pressure.
  • Ternary mixtures, Nernst distribution law, extraction.
  • Thermal analysis – differential scanning calorimetry.

Reaction kinetics

  • reaction rate, molecularity, mechanisms and order of a reaction,
  • simplex reactions, reactions of 0th, 1st, 2nd and n-th order of reaction, rate constant, reaction half-life, determination of an order of a reaction
  • dependence of the reaction rate on the temperature: Arrhenius’s equation, activation energy, reaction coordinates, the rate-determining step of a reaction
  • effect of other factors on the reaction rate, catalysis
  • kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction

Electrochemistry, ionic equilibria

  • equilibria electrolyte solutions, characteristics of electrolytes, degree of dissociation
  • Arrhenius classical theory
  • specific and molar conductivity of electrolytes
  • activity, activity coefficient, ionic strength, Debye-Hückel’s limiting law
  • autoprotolysis of water, pH in aqueous and non-aqueous media, theories of acids and bases
  • dissociation of weak acids and bases, calculation of their pH, Ostwald´s law
  • buffers, mechanism of their action, Henderson-Hasselbalch equations, buffer capacity
  • hydrolysis of salts, hydrolytic constant and calculation of pH of salt solutions
  • amphoteric electrolytes, isoelectric point
  • acid-base indicators
  • solubility of slightly soluble salts, solubility product

Electrochemistry, electrochemical methods

  • conductivity of electrolytes, Kohlrausch law, Arrhenius relation,
  • Nernst equation, electrode potential of metal/metal-ion system, standard reduction potential
  • potentiometry, types of electrodes, usage of potentiometry (pH measurement, potentiometric titration)
  • membrane electrodes, Donnan potential, glass electrode
  • electrolysis, Faraday´s laws, galvanic cells
  • net movement of molecules (diffusion – Fick’s law), transport processes in solutions, Nernst–Planck equation
  • electric double layer, introduction to electrochemical methods

Phase interface phenomena, Colloidal systems

  • liquid surfaces, surface tension
  • adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface-active substances, hydrophile-lipophile balance
  • particle phase interface phenomena, influence of electrolytes, principles of chromatography
  • classification of colloidal systems, lyophilic, lyophobic, and associating colloids
  • optical, kinetic and electrical properties of colloids
  • suspensions, liquid surfaces, surface and interface tension, sedimentation
  • emulsions, types of emulsions, theory of their formation and stability
  • micelles, critical micelle concentration

Practical training

  • Determination of the relative molecular weight by Rast method
  • Determination of the distribution coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids
  • Kinetic measurement of the acetylsalicylic acid decomposition (1st order kinetics)
  • Kinetic measurement of the basic decomposition of ethyl acetate (2nd order kinetics)
  • Potentiometric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid
  • Conductimetric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid or a weak base
  • Measurement of electrode potentials
  • Determination of the critical micellar concentration
  • Spectrophotometric determination of the dissociation constant of an acid-base indicator


Seminars, solution of model problems

  • Concentration of solutions
  • pH of strong and weak acids and bases, pH of buffers, pH dependence of dissociation of substances
  • solubility, solubility product
  • electrode potential, oxidation-reduction potential
  • osmotic pressure
  • reaction rate, half-life of reaction, Arrhenius equation
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation, equilibrium constant, van’t Hoff´s reaction isobar, van’t Hoff´s reaction isotherm
  • thermodynamic feasibility of a reaction
  • distribution coefficient
  • basic thermodynamic quantities
Last update: Pavlíková Přecechtělová Jana, Mgr., Ph.D. (18.02.2024)
Learning resources - Czech

E-learning Moodle: Fyzikální chemie

Vacík, J. Obecná chemie; Přírodovědecká fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, 2017.

Last update: Pullmannová Petra, Mgr., Ph.D. (16.02.2024)