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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Biophysics - GB057
Title: Biofyzika
Guaranteed by: Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry (16-16110)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2022 to 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 0
E-Credits: 6
Examination process: winter s.:written
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:28/28, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unknown / unknown (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Is provided by: GF174
Explanation: (ZB, prez.1.r.)
Note: course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Monika Kuchařová, Ph.D.
Classification: Pharmacy >
Annotation -
Biophysics provides physical basis of selected biological and physiological processes. The aim of this subject is to give students necessary theoretical knowledge, as well as to teach them the basics of laboratory practice including demonstration of a correct way of experimental procedure, making them familiar with the general laboratory instrumentation and learning them the basics of research methodology. All of this is done in the accordance with the requirements of related subjects and pharmaceutical practices. Biophysics affords an optimal theoretical and experimental basis for students´ education at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Charles University across all parts of their studies. Topics: basics of error theory, measurement of some physical quantities, matter, biomembranes and transport of substances across them, free radicals, mechanics of fluids and biomechanics of the circulation of the blood, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, radioactivity, optics and biophysics of vision, ionizing radiation – biological effects and the application, introductio to thermodynamics, X-ray and computed tomography, acoustics and biophysics of hearing.
Last update: Kuchařová Monika, Mgr., Ph.D. (21.09.2023)
Course completion requirements - Czech

Podmínkou udělení zápočtu je splnění následujících podmínek:

1. Absolvování všech úloh v praktických cvičeních, které posluchači přísluší podle rozvrhu. Úlohy zameškané z jakéhokoli důvodu je třeba nahradit ve zvlášť určených termínech.

2. Úspěšné odevzdání protokolů z absolvovaných úloh.

3.Úspěšné vykonání zápočtového testu. Zápočtový test se vypracovává v prostředí programu Moodle, testové otázky vychází z úloh, keteré se učí v praktickém cvičení z biofyziky.


Podmínkou úspěšného zakončení předmětu je složení zkoušky. Ta se skládá z 50 otázek, které jsou vybírány z témat jednotlivých přednášek. Na tyto otázky studenti odpovídají písemně. K úspěšnému složení zkoušky je potřeba získat alespoň 30 bodů z celkového počtu 50 bodů.

Last update: Kuchařová Monika, Mgr., Ph.D. (26.09.2023)
Literature - Czech


  • Kuchařová M., Bárta P., Nováková V. . Praktická cvičení z biofyziky. Praha: Karolinum, 2021, s. ISBN 978-80-246-4987-0..


Last update: Kuchařová Monika, Mgr., Ph.D. (21.09.2023)
Syllabus -

Theory of errors

  • absolute error, relative error, gross error, systematic errors, random errors, mean value, standard deviation of mena value, graphical processing of measurement results

 Measurement of some physical quantities

  • Mass measurement – mass, weight, equal –arm balances, spring and torsion balances, tensometric balances
  • Density measurement - pycnometric method of measurement of solutions and solids, hydrometer, immersion body method
  • Viscosity measurement - viscosity, Newton´s  law of viscosity, capillary viscometers, Hagen-Poiseuille´s equation, body viscometer, Stoke´s law, Höppler´s viscometer, rotational and torsion viscometers
  • Calorimetric measurements - heat, specific heat capacity, law of conversation of energy, electric calorimeter, heat capacity of calorimeter
  • Refractometry - Snell's law, absolute refractive index, critical Angle, Abbe´s refractometer
  • Polarimetry - linearly polarized light, optical activity of substances, angle of optical rotation, circle polarimeter
  • Spectrophotometry - Lambert´s  law, Lambert´s - Beer law, absorptivity, absorption spectrum, calibration curve, spectrophotometer

 The Matter

  • The forms of the matter – substance and field
  • Force interaction– 4 kinds of basic force interactions and energy of a particle in a force field
  • Particles– photons, leptons, mesons, baryons, and a dual character
  • Atom – atomic nucleus and shell (orbitals, quantum numbers)
  • Physical-chemical properties of molecules and their structure – strong and weak chemical interactions
  • Biopolymers and their structure
  • Dispersion system and its properties

Biological membranes and transport across membranes

  • Biomembrane - fluid mosaic model, function, lipid bilayer - composition and structure, micelles and liposomes - structute and importance
  • Membrane transport - passive transport (diffusion, osmosis), Donnan´s equilibrium, active transport (group translocation, transport via membrane vesicles, transport via specific transporters)

Free Radicals

  • Matter - atom structure, subatomic particles, quantum numbers, the four fundamental forces of nature, energy of particles
  • Free radicals – the formation of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the characterization of the most important representatives, the reaction of free radicals with biomolecules (lipids, proteins and DNA), Oxidative stress, Fenton´s reaction for copper and iron

 Fluid mechanics, basics of rheology and mechanics of body fluid flow

  • Liquid dynamics - liquids classification, flow of fluids, basic equations for ideal and Newtonian fluids - continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, Navier-Stokes equation,  viscosity, Newton Law of viscosity, Hagen-Poiseuille´s law, Stoke´s law
  • Basics of rheology - importance, rheological classification of bodies, viscoeleasticity, rheological axioms, elementary rheological bodies and rheological models, rheological diagrams- creep curves
  • Body fluid flow - heart and circulatory system, cardiac cycle, quantification of heart activity, blood and blood pressure, hydromechanical laws important for the description of flow and pressure conditions in the bloodstream

Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • The physical principle – the physical properties of ultrasound, transverse and longitudinal waves, acoustic impedance, the generation of echoes, intensity decrease of echoes
  • The imaging – A-scan, B-scan, piezoelectric and magnestrictive transducers, Motion Mode, TRSU and IVUS
  • Doppler shift – characterization of Doppler shift, its application in medicine (Doppler shift formula), CW and PW flowmeter, PW methods (CDI, SDR, CDE)
  • Ultrasound therapy – biological effects, therapy application, ATDD
  • MRI - magnetic properties of nucleus, electromagnetic impulse, T1 and T2 time, TR, the principle of the resonance generation, weighted images, image reconstruction principle, MRA, FMRI, MRI application


  • Radioactivity – radioactivity definitions and characterization, activity (quantity) and physical half-time, atomic number, mass number; isotopes, isobars, isotones and isomers definitions
  • Rays – alpha, beta and gamma radiation and their characterization
  • Interactions – the interaction of radiation with either atom shell or atom nucleus

Optics and Biophysics of Vision

  • Optics - spectrum and properties of electromagnetic radiation, light propagation - refraction and reflection of light, light diffraction and polarization, quantum optics
  • Biophysics of vision - optical system of an eye, near and distant point, accommodation range, visual acuity, retinal structure, mechanism of function of rode cells and cone cells, refractive defects of the eye

Ionizing Radiation – Biological Effects and the Application in Medicine

  • Dosimetry – the basic dosimetry quantities
  • Radiobiological effects – 4-step radiobiological effect and its pathological effects on cells and tissue/organ, cell cycle, direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation, stochastic versus deterministic effects (ARS and CRS)
  • Radiotherapy – sealed and open sources, Irradiators – i) gamma radiation sources, ii) particle accelerators
  • Radiodiagnosis – 3D scintigraphy (PET and SPECT)

Introduction to thermodynamics

  • Temperature, properties of gases (ideal gas, real gases), pressure, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law,  ideal gas law, heat, work, compression of ideal gas, Carnot cycle


  • X-rays – the physical properties, X-ray tube, types of X-ray radiation, the interaction of X-ray with the matter, fluoroscopy and radiography, contrast agents
  • Computed Tomography – the description of the principle of the method, voxel, Hounsfield units

 Acoustics and biophysics of hearing

  • Acoustics - acoustic waves, acoustic wave equation - harmonic movement, waves interference, wave velocity, wave energy, sound intensity, acoustic spectra, physiological acoustics - sound height, volume
  • Hearing Biophysics - structure and function of an ear, hearing mechanism, audiometry

Practical trainings

  • Density measurement
  • Viscosity measurement
  • Heat measurement - calorimetry
  • Light Refraction Measurement - refractometry
  • Measurement of optical rotation - polarimetry
  • Measurement of light absorption - spectrophotometry
  • Biometric measurements
  • Biophysics of vision
  • Audiometry
  • Effect of molecular size on diffusion rate 
Last update: Kuchařová Monika, Mgr., Ph.D. (21.09.2023)
Learning resources - Czech
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