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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Physiology - DA1103337
Title: Physiology
Guaranteed by: Department of Physiology (13-710)
Faculty: Second Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 15
E-Credits: 15
Examination process: winter s.:
summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:56/56, C [HS]
summer s.:56/56, C+Ex [HS]
Extent per academic year: 28 [weeks]
Capacity: winter:unlimited / unlimited (unknown)
summer:unlimited / unlimited (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Level:  
Guarantor: prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Classification: Medicine > Basic Sciences
Co-requisite : DA1103446
Pre-requisite : DA1101001, DA1101332, DA1101338
Is co-requisite for: DA1103363, DA1104364, DA1103446
Is pre-requisite for: DA1106362, DA1105439, DA1105454, DA1105043, DA1105340
Annotation
The subject is conceived as part of the basic professional subjects for the Master's degree program. During the course the students learn about the function and regulatory mechanisms of the human organism, organs and their parts.
Last update: Kovář Jan (30.06.2022)
Aim of the course

Understand the basic physiological functions of organs, organisms and their parts. Regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis.

To get acquainted with cell physiology, physiological expressions and regulatory mechanisms at the cellular level.

To get acquainted with the physiological differences of functions during the development of an individual.

Learn to respond to the stress. Physiological mechanisms for maintaining the integrity of the organism.

Last update: Kovář Jan (30.06.2022)
Course completion requirements

Successful completion of the course in both semesters and oral exam.

The rules for the Physiology exam

The Physiology exam will be carried out in the personal and online forms. The form of the exam will be marked in SIS for each term. The online exams are exclusively for the students who are outside the Czech Republic now and who can not attend the exam, i.e., mainly foreign students.

Other students can apply for an online exam only because of severe reasons like illness. In such a case, you need to bring the document from your GP. Your request for the online exam will be thoroughly evaluated. Then you will receive email notification whether your application was accepted or rejected. Also, the cancelling of the exam date to which the student has subscribed is allowed only due to severe reasons.

Each student will be notified about the exact time of the exam by email to avoid the risk of a gathering of a high number of persons at the same time.

For the online exam and to select exam questions, we will use a random number generator. The use of supporting materials or any written notes is not allowed for both personal or online exam, respectively. The online exam will be recorded and archived.

Last update: Kovář Jan (30.06.2022)
Literature

Ward, J. P. T.: Physiology at a glance : Wiley & Blackwell, 2008 (B)

Guyton, A. C.: Guyton & Hall textbook of medical physiology : Saunders Elsevier, 2011 (B), (avaible as ebook)

Last update: Kovář Jan (30.06.2022)
Requirements to the exam

General physiology

1. Feedback regulation - negative and positive feedback

2. Compartments of body fluids, their composition, measurement and regulation

3. Osmolarity, osmolality, diffusion, osmosis, diffusion flux

4. Forms of transport of substances across the cell membrane

5. Types of ligand-gated receptors, regulation of their action

6. Distribution of ions on the cell membrane, resting membrane potential

7. Action potential, conduction of action potential

Heart and circulation

8. Origin of rhythmicity of cardiac contractions, regulation of heart rate, conduction system

9. Action potential of different parts of the heart, relation to ECG

10. ECG - principle, basic description

11. Comparison of coupling of excitation and contraction of cardiac muscle fibers, skeletal and smooth muscle, relaxation

12. Homeometric and heterometric regulation of cardiac contractility

13. Cardiac cycle (P/V diagram)

14. Heart rate, ejection fraction and cardiac output

15. Relationship between pressure and blood flow, critical closing pressure

16. Turbulent and laminar flow and the effect of hematocrit

17. Capacitance and resistance circulation, principles of blood distribution between capacitance and resistance circulation

18. Blood pressures in different parts of the systemic circulation - influencing factors, importance of vascular compliance and elasticity

19. Mechanisms of systemic blood pressure control - short, medium, long term

20. Mechanisms of blood flow regulation and redistribution between organs

21. Coronary flow, coronary reserve and its importance

22. Circulatory changes during exercise

23. Circulatory, respiratory and other changes at birth

24. Capillary filtration, tissue fluid, lymph, role of the lymphatic system

Blood

25. CO2 transport in blood, Haldane effect, relationship to acid-base balance

26. O2 transport in blood, Hb, influence of PCO2, Bohr effect, types of hypoxia

27. Blood groups, Rh incompatibility of mother and fetus

28. Haemostasis, haemocoagulation, physiological anticoagulant mechanisms, investigated values

Respiration

29. Factors affecting the composition of alveolar air

30. Pulmonary ventilation, tidal volumes, relationship between dead space and effective ventilation

31. Diffusion and perfusion limitation of gas transport in the lung, diffusing capacity of the lung

32. Lung ventilation, respiratory muscles, pressure changes in different parts of the respiratory system during the respiratory cycle

33. Lung and chest compliance (P-V curve) and relationship to work of breathing

34. Airway resistance, regulation of bronchial clearance, static and dynamic work of breathing

35. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio, causes and consequences of imbalance

36. Pulmonary circulation, differences from systemic circulation

37. Nervous regulation of respiration, defence reflexes

38. Chemical regulation of respiration, chemoreceptors, respiratory hyperbole

Kidneys

39. Blood flow through the kidney. Regulation, relation to glomerular filtration rate, measurement

40. Glomerular filtration rate - factors that determine it, mechanisms of regulation

41. Function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and macula densa

42. Tubular transport - transport mechanisms in the proximal tubule, measurements

43. Potassium excretion in the kidney, regulation of calcemia

44. Renal urea excretion and ammonia metabolism in renal tubules

45. Osmotic gradient in the kidney - formation, significance

46. Factors affecting the magnitude of final diuresis

47. Regulation of urine osmolarity, osmoreceptors

48. Role of the kidney in the regulation of acid-base balance

49. Acid-base balance - determining factors, buffers, respiratory and metabolic components, examination

50. Mechanisms of blood pressure control including the role of the kidneys, pressure diuresis vs. tubuloglomerular feedback

51. Micturition - mechanism, management of hypertension

Endocrinology

52. Mechanisms of thermoregulation and its ontogenetic development

53. Adenohypophysis hormones - formation, release, regulation, significance

54. Regulation of the formation, release, transport and tissue action of thyroid hormones. Prenatal and postnatal effects

55. Regulation of calcemia

56. Glucocorticoids, stress response, effects, therapeutic uses

57. Mineralocorticoids and adrenal medulla hormones, mechanisms affecting their release

58. Endocrine function of the pancreas, main effects of insulin in different tissues

59. Important mechanisms of hormonal influence on glycaemia

60. Endocrine function of the testis, its control and the effects of androgens

61. Endocrine function of the ovary, its control, menstrual cycle

62. Pregnancy, placenta, childbirth, lactation

GIT

63. Chewing and swallowing (function, neural mechanisms, regulation of saliva production and its function, swallowing reflex)

64. Gastric function (including motility and its regulation, gastric juice production and its regulation)

65. Function of the duodenum (including regulation of gastric emptying and regulation of pancreatic juice and bile secretion, motility, absorption)

66. Exocrine pancreas and its regulation, bile, bile salt circulation

67. Colonic function (motility, intestinal bacteria, resorption), defecation reflex

68. Regulation of food intake (hypothalamus, adipose tissue, leptin, insulin, GLP-1, Ghrelin, peptide YY)

Neurophysiology

69. Synapse - neurotransmitters, postsynaptic potentials, summation

70. Glia and the blood-brain barrier

71. Typology of nerve fibres - differences in the method of conduction

72. Proprioception, muscle tone, gamma system, related brain centers

73. Spinal cord - structure, reflex activity, types of reflexes

74. Sympathetic and parasympathetic

75. Central motor control - cortical areas, pathways

76. Basal ganglia - importance in motor control

77. Cerebellum - function of parts, wiring, mediators

78. Sleep - phases, neurochemical basis, ARAS

79. Memory - divisions and types of memory, mechanisms involved in memory trace formation

80. Speech and basic pathways, lateralization of the cerebral hemispheres

81. Hypothalamus - endocrine and neural control of physiological functions

82. Cerebral circulation and its regulation, intracranial pressure

83. Transmission of the light signal through the optical apparatus of the eye and its transformation into the electrical signal of the retina, receptive field

84. Visual information processing (visual pathway, visual cortex, perception of shape and colour, spatial vision)

85. Hearing - principle of perception formation and processing

86. Somatosensory system (tactile sensation, thermoception and nociception), pain

87. Associative cortical areas (parieto-occipito-temporal, prefrontal, orbitofrontal), and executive functions

88. Vestibular system, nystagmus, posture and balance

89. Olfaction and taste - principle of registration and pathways

Examination methods

90. ECG

91. Measurement of cardiac output

92. Blood pressure measurement

93. Spirometry

94. Dynamic spirometry

95. Plethysmography

96. Measurement of residual volume and diffusing capacity of the lungs

97. Measurement of respiratory system pressures (alveolar, intrapleural, transpulmonary)

98. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (including serum markers) and renal blood flow

99. Examination of tubular function

100. Examination of blood gases, ASTRUP and basic parameters of acid-base balance

101. Measurement of respiratory quotient

102. Blood count examination and interpretation

103. Blood coagulation examination

104. Urinary and diuresis examination

105. Examination of reflexes and muscle tone

106. EEG

107. Evoked potentials (principles of measurement, modalities, interpretation)

108. Visual examination

109. Hearing examination

110. Examination and determination of plasma osmolarity

111. EMG

Last update: Minaříková Marcela, Ing. (26.09.2023)
Syllabus

1. Heart

1.1. Electrical activity of the heart

Rhythmicity of heartbeats and its origin, regulation of heart rate

Action potential (AP) at various parts of the conductive system, the causes of their shape variations, involvement of various ion channels, cardiac pacemaker, timing of the action potential spreading through the conductive heart system, factors affecting heart rate - sympathetic effect, vagal control, receptors, effect.

Action potential and its spread through cardiac muscles

The shape of the AP myocardial curve, the contributing ion channels, the timing of their action potentiation, the principle of "plateau" and its implication, intercellular propagation, absolute and relative refractory phases, the effect of changes in the composition of the internal environment on AP myocardium.

ECG (the recording principle, basic description)

Types of connections, registration principle, Einthoven's triangle, principle of recording from leads, heart vector and axis, factors that affect them, basic description of the ECG curve elements - intervals, waves, interpretation.

1.2. Mechanical properties of the cardiac action

Comparison of cardiac muscle fiber, skeletal and smooth muscle contraction

Involvement of contractile apparatus components, energy consumption, tetanic contraction, relaxation.

Comparison of the excitation and contraction coupling in cardiac and skeletal muscles

Principles of muscle cell excitation, signal transduction, pathways resulting in the activation of the contractile apparatus, the role of calcium

Mechanisms regulating the force of cardiac contraction

Homeometric, heterometric, contractility, factors affecting it, influence of calcium concentration, effect of vegetative control, Frank-Starling's law, principle, consequences, preload, afterload, factors affecting them, central venous pressure, their significance for cardiac contraction strength and cardiac output.

Cardiac cycle, cardiography, changes of essential points and segments of the curve

Systolic and diastolic cycles, causes and consequences of pressure / volume changes, Laplace's law

Cardiac minute output

Calculation, Fick's principle, dilution method, echocardiographic estimation, its setting, affecting factors, the influence of changes on the heart rate on its systolic and diastolic durations, the relationship between heart work and oxygen consumption

Ventricular function measurements

Cardiac output, ejection fraction, interpretation, relation to end-diastolic filling, end-systolic pressure and volume, cardiac index, ergometry, influence of the load on the volume of the cardiac output, cardiac work, oxygen consumption and blood pressure

2. Circulation

2.1 General principles

Relationship between pressure and blood flow

Measurement methods, factors affecting the pressure and the flow, elasticity, laminar and turbulent flow, determining factors and thier significance, closing pressure, what determines it and its significance for organ perfusion, parallel and series connection and significance for pressure-flow values

2.2. The pressure-flow relationship at different sections of the vascular bed and its regulation

Factors determining blood pressure, its importance, measurement

High-pressure and low-pressure system, significance, capacitive and resistant flow, flow rate and its relationship to pressure at different flow intervals and phases of cardiac cycle, measurement of blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, significance, influence of body position, relation to capillary filtration

Time factor in blood pressure regulation and involvement of individual regulatory mechanisms

Mechanisms of long-term maintenance of blood pressure stability, the importance of the kidneys, RAAS

Neuroregulation of blood flow distribution, baroreceptors, baroreflex, resetting.

Local regulation of blood flow, autoregulation of blood flow by organs (metabolic, myogenic, vasoconstrictive, vasodilatory factor).

2.3. Local specifics of blood flow, pressure / flow changes at rest and during exercise

Coronary blood flow

Oxygen consumption by the heart muscles at rest and during exercise, coronary reserve, influence of Laplace's law, subepicardial and subendocardial blood flow.

Other specific organs blood flow

brain (HEB), liver, splanchnicus, kidneys

Circulatory changes after birth

Circulatory changes during exercise

Static, dynamic load, differences

3. Blood and hematogenous gas transport

Transport of gases via the blood, affecting factors

Total blood transport capacity and modifying factors, solubility of gases in the liquids, partial pressure, transport in plasma, hemoglobin role in gas transportation and its affecting factors, hemoglobin saturation, Astrup - predictive value, limitations.

Hemoglobin dissociation curve

Types of hemoglobin and its O2 and CO2 affinity and its affecting factors, consequences. Explanation of the sigmoidal character of the curve, shifts of the dissociation curve, factors causing it, Bohr effect, Halden effect.

Blood groups, Rh maternal-fetal incompatibility

Antigenic definition of individual types, determination of blood groups, consequences of incompatibility - transfusion, mother / fetus, preventive methods.

Hemostasis, hemocoagulation, anticoagulant factors, their interaction, coagulation tests

Vasoconstriction and its factors, platelet reaction, hemocoagulation, binding of individual factors, calcium, vitamin K, formation of definitive thrombus, interaction of coagulation and anticoagulation mechanisms within the coagulation cascade, Quick test, APTT, INR, their significance

Hematological tests

Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean erythrocyte volume, erythrocyte count, leukocytes, platelets, erythrocyte color intensity, blood count, FW

4. Breathing

4.1. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics

Factors determining the composition of alveolar air, the effect of dead space size

Alveolar ventilation versus tidal volume, effective alveolar ventilation, anatomical and functional dead space, partial pressures of gases in the respiratory system, composition of exhaled air during breathing, affecting factors, hypoventilation, hyperventilation, influence on gases partial pressure within alveolar air and blood , calculations.

Mechanism of inhalation and exhalation, respiratory muscles, respiratory pattern

Barometric, interpleural, alveolar pressure, measurements, their values when breathing is stopped, relation to inspiration and expiration and their changes, its relation to the respiratory rate, inspiratory and expiratory muscles, their activity, management.

Factors determining pulmonary compliance and airway resistance, respiratory work

Relationship of the volume change versus the pressure change, tissue elasticity and surface tension and their affecting factors, surfactant, lung compliance curve, shape interpretation, airway flow resistance and its indicating factors, regulation of bronchial lumen, static, dynamic work, measurement

Examination of lung function

Spirometry: TLC, VC, TV, IRV, ERV, RV, FRC, flow-volume curve: FVC, PEF, resting versus forced expiration, plethysmography, lung and airway resistance.

4.2. Blood-alveolar air gas exchange

Causes and consequences of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch disproportion and their ratio

Rahn-Fenn scheme, alveolar dead space, venous admixture, O2 and CO2 partial pressures alveolar and arterial

Gas transport across the alveolo-capillary membrane, perfusion and diffusion limitations

Diffusion surface, diffusion path, concentration gradient, gases solubility and membrane diffusion, flow rate, diffusion capacity, measurement, A-V difference

Functional differences between systemic and pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary and systemic bed triggered hypoxic reaction, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, mechanism, consequences for oxygen saturation, circulation

4.3. Respiratory regulation

Mechanisms of chemical regulation

Central, peripheral, localization, response to change in O2 and CO2, mechanism, adaptation

Neuroregulation of respiration

Defensive reflexes of respiration, origin of respiratory rhythm, inspiratory and expiratory neurons, activity, lung receptors, peripheral receptors of the thorax and respiratory muscles, peripheral receptors of the limbs, baroreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain.

4.4. Hypoxia - causes and implications

Types of hypoxia

Hypoxic, ischemic, anemic, histotoxic, causes, consequences for oxygen transport to tissues, hemoglobin saturation, arterial and venous pO2 and pCO2, dissociation curve in these designated conditions.

Hyperbaria, hypobaria

Influence on gas transport, respiratory center reactions, dissociation curve shift, ABR shift, effect on hematocrit, effect on pulmonary perfusion

Respiratory quotient

5. Kidneys

5.1. Glomerular function

Renal blood flow. Regulation, relation to glomerular filtration.

Flow autoregulation, cortical and medullary flow, differences, significance, blood flow myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback regulation, changes in vas afferens and vas efferens resistance, relation to GF size, influence of RAAS system, ANP, prostaglandins, sympathetic, effective flow

Factors determining glomerular filtration

Differences in hydrostatic pressures, their causes and consequences, oncotic pressure, permeability of the glomerular membrane and factors influencing it, composition and osmolarity of primary urine,

Measurement of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Clearance, principle, calculation, creatinine, insulin, advantages, disadvantages, cystatin C, flow measurement using the PAH clearance method.

5.2. Tubular function

Measurement of tubular transport, fractional excretion of solutes and water

Fractional excretion, tubular resorption, calculations, significance, osmolar fractional excretion, osmolality deficit, osmolar clearance, solute-free water clearance

Transport mechanisms and their importance in the proximal tubule

Na +, glc, K +, HCO3-, H +, urea, amino acids

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Juxtaglomerular apparatus and macula densa, principle of function, effects of ANG and aldosterone

Potassium excretion in the kidneys

Localization, importance for maintaining potassium and other factors of the internal environment

Renal excretion of urea and ammonia metabolism in renal tubules

Correlation of the ABR maintenance

Formation of concentrated and diluted urine

Osmolarity of tubular fluid during flow through the tubular system, Henle loop function, osmotic startification of the marrow, significance, maintenance principle, influence of aldosterone and ADH on urine volume regulation, principle of action

5.3 Urination

Mechanism, control, testing

6. ABR (Acid-Base Regulation)

6.1. Basic factors determining acid-base balance in the body

Acid production in the body, buffers

ABR structure

Respiratory and metabolic component

Values detecting the ABR status

Buffer base, base excess, anion gap

6.2. Deviations and regulation of acid-base balance

Acidosis causes, consequences

Respiratory, metabolic

Alkalosis, causes, consequences

Respiratory, metabolic

Respiratory compensation

The role of the kidneys

Urine acidification, principle, localization, acidification tests, titratable acidity, relation to HCO3- transport

7. General physiology

7.1. Thermoregulation and its ontogenetic development

Regulatory functions of the hypothalamus, thyroid hormones, sympathetic nervous system (vasomotor activity of cutaneous vessels, sweat glands, brown fat, uncoupling), tremor. Specificities of thermoregulation in the neonatal period.

7.2. Body fluid compartmentalization, their composition, measurement and regulation

Molarity, osmolarity, electroneutrality. Composition of intracellular and extracellular fluid. Plasma-interstitial fluid gradient differences, Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Principle of measuring the volume of body fluid compartments by dissolving the indicator. How changes in fluid intake and expenditure affect the distribution of fluids in the body.

7.3. Tissue fluid production, lymphatic circulation, regional peculiarities in tissue fluid production

Fluid passage through the capillary wall, Starling's equation (hydrostatic and oncotic pressure). Description of the lymphatic system and structural peculiarities of lymphatic vessels. The role of the lymphatic system in fat absorption, reabsorption of fluids from the interstitium and removal of large proteins from the interstitial space. Specificities of the pulmonary microcirculation.

7.4. Ion distribution across cell membranes, significance

Forms of transport of substances across the cell membrane

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, secondary active transport, primary active transport. Factors determining the molecular size of diffusion. Carriers, the most important ATPases, symport and antiport.

Distribution of ions on the cell membrane, its derive, influence on the setting of membrane tension

Ion channels and selective permeability of the cell membrane, electrochemical gradient. Equilibrium potentials for K +, Na + and Cl-, Nernst equation. Resting membrane potential.

Action potential, mechanism of origin, factors that influence it

Voltage-dependent Na + and K + channel, changes in membrane conductivity for Na + and K +, graph of voltage course during AP (depolarization, threshold value, repolarization to positive values, repolarization, hyperpolarization). Absolute and relative refractory period and AP propagation.

8. Endocrine system

8.1. General principles of hormonal regulation, mechanisms of action of hormones

Negative feedback simple and complex, positive feedback. Number of receptors and their hormone affinity (down-regulation, up-regulation). Membrane receptors associated with second messenger, membrane receptors associated with catalytic activity, steroid and thyroid hormones receptors.

8.2. Pituitary hormones, their importance in individual development

Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland

Relation of adenohypophyseal hormones secretion to the hypothalamic function, connection of hypothalamus and neurohypophysis, overview of neurohypophyseal hormones and their function.

Tropical pituitary hormones

Overview and their functions, connectivity at the levels of the relevant peripheral gland.

Hormones important for growth and development of an individual

Growth hormone, prolactin, function, significance.

8.3 Hormonal function of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands

Release, transport, activation

Regulation of thyroid hormone production and secretion, plasma thyroid hormone binding, T4 activation in target tissues, tissue receptor.

The effects of thyroid hormones, including their importance for the development

Prenatal and postanatal metabolic, circulatory effects, for the development and functioning of NS.

Functions of parathyroid glands in calcium regulation.

8.4. Adrenal hormones

Glucocorticoids, stress response

Regulation of glucocorticoid excretion, pulsatile secretion, circadian course. Effects of glucocorticoids and the importance of glucocorticoid secretion under stress

Adrenal marrow hormones, reaction to stress

Biological consequences of adrenal medulla activation. Target organs and tissues according to receptor subtypes and the nature of individual types of response. The importance of catecholamine secretion in stress.

8.5. Endocrine function of the pancreas, regulation of glycemia (growth hormone, corticoids…)

Regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Mechanism of insulin action in target cells, main effects of insulin. Glucagon - regulation of secretion and effects. Pancreatic somatostatin. General overview of glycemic control.

8.6. Endocrine function of the gonads

Endocrine function of the testes

regulation of GnRH, FSH and LH secretion in men. Effects of androgens.

Endocrine function of the ovaries, menstrual cycle

Regulation of ovarian function (GnRH, FSH and LH), negative and positive feedback. Phases of the menstrual cycle and levels of LH, FSH, 17β-estradiol and progesterone. Effects of estrogens and progesterone on the target tissues.

Hormonal changes in pregnancy, placenta, childbirth

Events in the early phase of pregnancy (fertilization, implantation, HCG secretion). Overview of hormones in pregnancy. Synthesis of progesterone and estriol during pregnancy. The role of hormones in childbirth (oxytocin, prostaglandins, fetal cortisol and the estrogen / progesterone ratio). Regulation of milk secretion and ejection

9. GIT

9.1. General GIT functions

GIT motility and its control (general principles)

Slow and fast waves, enteric NS, autonomic and hormonal control of motilities, inhibitory and excitatory GI neurotransmitters (noradrenalin, acetylcholine, CCK, VIP, histamine, somatostatin), effectors, GIT reflexes

Secretion and function of regulatory substances

Paracrine hormones (somatostatin, histamine, pepsin), neurocrine (Ach, VIP, subst P…); gastrointestinal; (gastrin, secretin, CCK, GIP)

9.2 Functional specifics of individual sections of the GIT

Oral cavity and esophagus

Chewing and swallowing (function, nervous mechanisms), motility, regulation of saliva production and their function; significance of saliva secretion volume

Stomach

Main functions (storage, mixing, propulsion), chyme, regulation and importance of gastric secretion (HCL, mucus, enzymes, hormones); gastric emptying mechanism

Digestion of chyme in the small intestine

Motility, absorption and postabsorption phases, mechanism and regulation of intestinal juice secretion

Exocrine pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Hormonal control of pancreatic secretion, bile output, bile salt circulation

The main function of the large intestine

Propulsion, haustration, defecation, function of intestinal bacteria, resorption of ions, vitamins, water, calcium, iron.

9.3. Systems and substances affecting food intake

Influence of hypothalamus, adipose tissue, leptin, insulin, GLP-1, Ghrelin, peptide YY

10. Nervous system

10.1. General neurophysiology

Synapsis

Neurotransmission (presynaptic part), postsynaptic receptors and potentials (ionotropic and metabotropic r.), EPSP and IPSP, neurotransmitters (overview, receptors, synthesis, reuptake), learning (synaptic scales, LTP, LTD)

Neuron, glial cell

Specifics of the function of individual parts of nerve cells, types of nerve fibers, the relationship between their thickness and myelination to the rate of signal transmission, glia function

10.2. Senses

Vision

Retinal circuits, photoreceptors, receptive fields

Hearing

Mechanics, frequency coding, potassium circulation

Vestibular system

Function, nystagmus

Smell

Odorant effect, circuits in the olfactory bulb

Taste

The effect of five different tastes on receptor cells

Somatosensory system

Touch, pain, muscle elongation, tendon strain

Visceral system

Baroreceptors, osmoreceptors, chemoreceptors

10.3. Spinal cord and ANS

Reflex activity of the spinal cord

Postural, defensive, monosynaptic, polysynaptic connections, crossed reflexes, reflex arc, gamma loop

ANS

Sympathetic, parasympathetic, effect on various organs

10.4. Brain

Brainstem centers

Cerebellum

Functions of its three main components (vermis, flocculus, hemispheres), involvement of mediators

Hypothalamus

Nerve functions, endocrine functions

Basal ganglia

Circuits involvement, expected role (behavior control, planning, skills learning)

Cerebral cortex

Primary cortical areas (sensory areas, motor cortex), higher order cortical areas (secondary, associative, premotor, frontal)

Involvement of brain structures in the motor control

Sleep

Phases, sleep cycle, neurochemical nature of sleep and awakening, ARAS

Memory

Structures and mechanisms involved in memory track storage, short-term memory - long-term, declarative - non-declarative

10.5. Nervous system tests

EEG

Principle, waves, meaning

Evoked potentials

Last update: Kovář Jan (30.06.2022)
 
Schedule scheduled
Schedule ticket Date From - To Education type Theme Teacher Files Note
23aDA1103337p1

Groups of students
M2.AVL
Mon 02.10.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Introduction prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 03.10.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Distribution of ions across cell membranes, membrane transport prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 09.10.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Electrical properties of the cell MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Tue 10.10.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Coupling of excitation-contraction on different muscles prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 16.10.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Muscles II prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 17.10.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Electrical aspect of cardiac action MUDr. Milan Chovanec, Ph.D.
Mon 23.10.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture ECG (principle of recording, basic description) Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Tue 24.10.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Circulation MUDr. Milan Chovanec, Ph.D.
Mon 30.10.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Specifics of circulation in different organ systems MUDr. Milan Chovanec, Ph.D.
Tue 31.10.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Mechanical aspect of cardiac action MUDr. Milan Chovanec, Ph.D.
Mon 06.11.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Heart - clinical aspects and examination MUDr. Milan Chovanec, Ph.D.
Tue 07.11.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Blood MUDr. Marie Žaloudíková, Ph.D.
Mon 13.11.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Transport of gases through blood MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Tue 14.11.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Ventilation and mechanics of breathing/Mechanics + measurements prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Mon 20.11.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Gas transfer between blood and alveolar air, pulmonary circulation, V/Q prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Tue 21.11.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Respiratory regulation Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Mon 27.11.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture ANS MUDr. Helena Pivoňková, Ph.D.
Tue 28.11.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Clinical aspects of respiration prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 04.12.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Principles of glomerular filtration and renal blood flow prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 05.12.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Mechanisms of tubular secretion and reabsorption prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 11.12.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Water transport and production of concentrated urine by the kidneys prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 12.12.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Principles of clearance determination and renal function testing prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 18.12.2023 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and sodium metabolism prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 19.12.2023 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Role of the kidney in potassium metabolism and excretion prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 01.01.2024 8:45 - 10:25 nothing Holiday
Tue 02.01.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Physiological aspects of ascent to high altitude environment prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Mon 08.01.2024 8:45 - 10:25 lecture Acid-base balance and the role of the kidneys in ABB regulation prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Tue 09.01.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Renal physiology in clinical practice  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
23aDA1103337x01

Groups of students
M2.1.AVL
Tue 03.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Introductory seminar - repetition of physical phenomena RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 10.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Osmolarity, diffusion, resting MP RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 17.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Action potential - different tissues  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 24.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Muscles - EMG  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 31.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Heart – electrophysiological properties, ECG  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 07.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Circulation  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 14.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Heart mechanics + short-term control of BP  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 21.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Blood tests, coagulation  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 28.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Blood - gas transport  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 05.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration I.  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 12.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration II.  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 19.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration III RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 02.01.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals ANS RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 09.01.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Credit, completion of topics RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
23aDA1103337x02

Groups of students
M2.2.AVL
Tue 03.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Introductory seminar - repetition of physical phenomena RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 10.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Osmolarity, diffusion, resting MP  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 17.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Action potential - different tissues  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 24.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Muscles - EMG  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 31.10.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Heart – electrophysiological properties, ECG  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 07.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Circulation RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 14.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Heart mechanics + short-term control of BP  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 21.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Blood tests, coagulation  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 28.11.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Blood - gas transport  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 05.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration I.  RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 12.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration II. RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 19.12.2023 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Respiration III. RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 02.01.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals ANS RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
Tue 09.01.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Credit, completion of topics RNDr. Petra Mrózková, Ph.D.
23aDA1103337x03

Groups of students
M2.3.AVL
Thu 05.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Introductory seminar - repetition of physical phenomena prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 12.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Osmolarity, diffusion, resting MP prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 19.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Action potential - different tissues  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 26.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Muscles - EMG  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 02.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 nothing
Thu 09.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Circulation prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 16.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Heart mechanics + short-term control of BP prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 23.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Blood tests, coagulation prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 30.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Blood - gas transport prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 07.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration I. prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 14.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration II. prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 21.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration III. prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 04.01.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals ANS prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 11.01.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Credit, completion of topics prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
23aDA1103337x04

Groups of students
M2.4.AVL
Thu 05.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Introductory seminar - repetition of physical phenomena prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 12.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Osmolarity, diffusion, resting MP prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 19.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Action potential - different tissues prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 26.10.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Muscles - EMG  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 02.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 nothing
Thu 09.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Circulation prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 16.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Heart mechanics + short-term control of BP  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 23.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Blood tests, coagulation prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 30.11.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Blood - gas transport prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 07.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration I. prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 14.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration II.  prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 21.12.2023 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Respiration III. prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 04.01.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals ANS prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Thu 11.01.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Credit, completion of topics prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
 
Schedule scheduled
Schedule ticket Date From - To Education type Theme Teacher Files Note
23bDA1103337p1

Groups of students
M2.AVL
Mon 19.02.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Endocrine function of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Wed 21.02.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Thyroid gland MUDr. Tereza Kratzerová, Ph.D.
Mon 26.02.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Adrenal glands, corticoids including clinical use MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Wed 28.02.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Pregnancy and sex hormones MUDr. Tereza Kratzerová, Ph.D.
Mon 04.03.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Endocrine function of the pancreas MUDr. Tereza Kratzerová, Ph.D.
Wed 06.03.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Endocrine function of adipose tissue MUDr. Tereza Kratzerová, Ph.D.
Mon 11.03.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Digestion I prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Wed 13.03.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Digestion II prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Mon 18.03.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Physiology of endocrine regulation in clinical practice prof. MUDr. Štěpánka Průhová, Ph.D.
Wed 20.03.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Clinical Aspects of Digestive Physiology prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 25.03.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Synapsis, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators Mgr. Ondřej Novák, Ph.D.
Wed 27.03.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Signal integration and propagation, nerve conduction, glial cells MUDr. Helena Pivoňková, Ph.D.
Mon 01.04.2024 13:30 - 15:10 nothing
Wed 03.04.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Reflexes, regulation of muscle tone and physiology of basic spinal functions prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 08.04.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Somatosensory systm and pain doc. MUDr. Lýdia Vargová, Ph.D.
Wed 10.04.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Speach, emotions, fear prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 15.04.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Memory and learning Mgr. Ondřej Novák, Ph.D.
Wed 17.04.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Electroencephalography, sleeping, consciousness, circadian rhythms Ing. Jan Kudláček, DiS., Ph.D.
Mon 22.04.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Vision, optical apparatus of the eye, retina, visual pathway, visual cortex and processing of visual information doc. MUDr. Gabriela Mahelková, Ph.D.
Wed 24.04.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture The role of the cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia in the motor prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 29.04.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Hearing. smell and taste Mgr. Ondřej Novák, Ph.D.
Wed 01.05.2024 11:40 - 13:20 nothing
Mon 06.05.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Inflammation MUDr. Kamila Čížková
Wed 08.05.2024 11:40 - 13:20 nothing
Mon 13.05.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Cerebral circulation, intracranial pressure and the blood-brain barrier prof. MUDr. Jakub Otáhal, Ph.D.
Wed 15.05.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Neurophysiological findings in neurological practice prof. MUDr. Přemysl Jiruška, Ph.D.
Mon 20.05.2024 13:30 - 15:10 lecture Specifics of fetal life prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Wed 22.05.2024 11:40 - 13:20 lecture Physiology in extreme conditions prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
23bDA1103337x01

Groups of students
M2.1.AVL
Thu 22.02.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Repetiton, Kidney blood flow prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 29.02.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Kidneys I prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 07.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Kidneys II prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 14.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals ABB prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 21.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Endokrinology I prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 28.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Endokrinology II prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 04.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals GIT I prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 11.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals GIT II prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 18.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro I - general prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 25.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro II - CNS prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 02.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro II - reflexes, EEG prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 09.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Senses prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 16.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Exercise prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
Thu 23.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Credit prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl, DrSc.
23bDA1103337x02

Groups of students
M2.2.AVL
Thu 22.02.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Repetiton, kidney blood flow Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 29.02.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Kidneys I Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 07.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Kidneys II Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 14.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals ABB Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 21.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Endocrinology I Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 28.03.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Endocrinology II Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 04.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals GIT I Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 11.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals GIT II Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 18.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro I - general Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 25.04.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro II - CNS Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 02.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Neuro III - reflexes, EEG Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 09.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Senses Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 16.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Exercise Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
Thu 23.05.2024 14:25 - 17:55 practicals Credit Mgr. Karolína Liška, Ph.D.
23bDA1103337x03

Groups of students
M2.3.AVL
Fri 23.02.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Repetition, kidney blood flow MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 01.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Kidneys I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 08.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Kidneys II MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 15.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals ABB MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 22.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Endocrinology I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 29.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 nothing
Fri 05.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals GIT I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 12.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals GIT II MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 19.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro I - general MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 26.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro II - CNS MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 03.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro III- reflexes, EEG MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 10.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Senees MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 17.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Exercise MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 24.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Credit MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
23bDA1103337x04

Groups of students
M2.4.AVL
Fri 23.02.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Repetition, kidney blood flow MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 01.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Kidneys I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 08.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Kidneys II MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 15.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals ABB MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 22.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Endocrinology I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 29.03.2024 8:00 - 11:30 nothing
Fri 05.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals GIT I MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 12.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals GIT II MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 19.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro I - general MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 26.04.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro II - CNS MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 03.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Neuro III - reflexes, EEG MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 10.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Senses MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 17.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Exercise MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
Fri 24.05.2024 8:00 - 11:30 practicals Credit MVDr. Olga Vajnerová, Ph.D.
 
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