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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Cellular Basis of Medicine - C1VL001
Title: Buněčné základy medicíny
Guaranteed by: Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology 3FM CU (12-BIOC)
Faculty: Third Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
Points: 36
E-Credits: 36
Examination process: winter s.:
summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:134/95, C [HS]
summer s.:154/82, C+Ex [HS]
Extent per academic year: 0 [hours]
Capacity: winter:unknown / unknown (unknown)
summer:unknown / unknown (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech, English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
Guarantor: doc. MUDr. Jan Trnka, Ph.D.
Interchangeability : CVSE1M0001
Is pre-requisite for: CPVL103, CPVL071, CPVL111, CPVL097, CPVL098, CPVL101, CPVL102, CPVL110, CPVL099, CPVL002, CPVL003, CPVL004, CPVL005, CPVL006, CPVL007, CPVL008, CPVL009, CPVL010, CPVL021, CPVL012, CPVL013, CPVL014, CPVL016, CPVL017, CPVL018, CPVL019, CPVL020, CPVL022, CPVL024, CPVL025, CPVL026, CPVL028, CPVL029, CPVL031, CPVL032, CPVL034, CPVL011, CPVL100, CPVL051, CPVL104, CPVL105, CPVL096, CPVL107, CPVL108, CPVL106, CPVL109, CPVL112
Is interchangeable with: CVSE1M0001
Examination dates   Schedule   
Annotation -
Module Cellular Basis of Medicine ("module Cell") consists of four courses - two in the winter semester and two in the summer semester: Course 1 - Cell structure and heredity (8 weeks), Course 2 - Cell metabolism and specialisation (7 weeks), Course 3 - Cell signalling and immunity (7 weeks), Course 4 - Cell cycle and development (8 weeks). The teaching in this module is carried out by the Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Department of Medical Genetics and Department of Immunology and Clinical Biochemistry.
Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (01.10.2021)
Aim of the course -

The aim of the course is to give a comprehensive overview of cells and tissues: in an integrated form, students gain knowledge from molecular biology, biochemistry, histology, genetics and immunology. Emphasis is especially placed on linking the knowledge of cellular biological and related disciplines to each other and also with their implications for preclinical and clinical disciplines. The course's learning meetings create opportunities for understanding principles related to cellular structures and functions, together with the application of these principles to model or real-world situations, complemented by practical skills in laboratory science, data interpretation and work with information.

Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (01.10.2021)
Literature -


  • Alberts B. et al.: Essential Cell Biology. Garland Science, New York & London, 2010
  • Alberts B. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Science, New York, 2008 
  • Lodish H. et al.: Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2008
  • Knowles M. and Selby P.: Introduction to the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2005


  • Rodwell Victor W.: Harper´s Illustrated Biochemistry, 31st ed., 2018, ISBN 978-1259837937 (main recommended textbook for biochemistry)
  • Jan Koolman, Klaus-Heinrich Röhm: Color Atlas of Biochemistry, Thieme, Stuttgard, 2012, ISBN 978-3131003737, also available from  
  • Pamela C. Champe, Richard A. Harvey: Lippincott´s Illustrated Reviews - Biochemistry, ISBN 0-397-51091-8
  • Thomas M. Devlin et al.: Textbook of Biochemistry With Clinical Correlations, 4th ed., ISBN 0-471-15451-2


  • Robert L. Nussbaum, Roderick R. McInnes, Huntington F. Willard: Thompson and Thompson: Genetics in Medicine. Eighth edition, Elsevier 2016, ISBN 978-1-4377-0696-3
  • Lynn B. Jorde, John C. Carey, Michael J. Bamshad: Medical Genetics. Fifth edition, Elsevier 2016, ISBN 978-0-323-18835-7
  • Dorian J. Pritchard, Bruce R. Korf: Medical Genetics at a Glance. Second edition, Blackwell Publishing 2008


  • Junqueira LC, Carneiro J: Basic Histology. Text and atlas. 14th ed. (last one) McGraw-Hill, New York 2005.
  • Ross and Pawlina: Histology - a Text and Atlas (with correlated cell and  molecular biology)
  • Young B, Heath JW: Wheather's Functional Histology: a Text and Colour Atlas. 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh 1993.
  • Kierszenbaum AL: Histology and Cell Biology. An Introduction to Pathology. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia
  • Eroschenko VP.: diFiore´s Atlas of Histology with functional correlations – my opinion : a bit simplified , but a lot of good pictures
  • Kerr JB: Functional Histology, 2nd ed, Mosby, 2010.
  • Moore KL,Persaud TVN: The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryolog, 10 th ed,  Elsevier, 2015,  ISBN 80-85866-94-3
  • Sadler TW:  Langman´s Medical Embryology, 13 th  ed., William and Wilkins 2015, ISBN-13: 978-1451191646


  • Abbas, AH Lichtman, S Pillai.  Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Elsevier, 2011. 7th ed.
  • Roitt I, Delves PJ: Essential Immunology. Blackwell Scientific Publications 2012, 12th ed.
  • Kindt TJ: Kuby Immunology, New York : W.H. Freeman, 2006 
  • Immunobiology, Janeway CA et al., available at:
  • Any other immunology textbook can be used


Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (01.10.2021)
Teaching methods -

Forms of teaching in this module include lectures, seminars and practicals.
Essay topics are assigned by teachers before some seminars in which they are to be presented by students.

If DISTANCE TEACHING is necessary, the whole module is taught through MS Teams.

In this case, students will receive an email in advance with a code to log in to MS Teams.

Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (01.10.2021)
Requirements to the exam -

Exam requirements

The final module exam will take place in the summer examination period (June-September) in the form of a written test from all five subjects of the module (biochemistry, histology, molecular biology, genetics and imunology). In order to pass the exam you must obtain at least 60 % of points from questions of each subject and at the same time obtain at least 70 % of the total number of points from the test. The points you accumulated over the year in course tests will be added to your total score and as such they can help you pass the test or improve your mark. However, these points are not added to the 60 % requirement from each subject, you must reach this mark regardless of your work during the year. 

Detailed information about exam:

·      exam test can be taken three times at maximum, only in the summer examination period

·      exam dates are announced in SIS - you can sign up for the exam only if you’ve received both semestral credits (winter and summer)

·      you MUST sign up for chosen date of the exam in SIS: you will not be able to take the test without it

·      once you register for an exam you must attend - if you fail to attend without a prior apology you will lose the attempt, i.e. out of three total attempts you will only have two (or one if you fail to attend again without a prior apology)

·      it is a written exam containing Short Answer Questions, it is realized electronically by the application Moodle, using faculty´s iPADs when sitting at a lecture hall

·      the test includes questions from all subjects of the module, the sum of points from each subject is the same

·      topics of the test questions are the same as topics of lectures of the whole module (see syllabus)

·      total number of points from the test: 40 points for each subject, i. e. 40x 5 subjects = 200 points all together (= 100%)

·      to pass the exam you must
a) reach at least 60 % of points from each of the five subjects (i.e. 24 points / subject) and at the same time
b) reach at least 70 % of points from the whole test (140 points)

! you will need your calculator for the test and your ID for log in to CAS

·      points accumulated from course tests (see below) during the year are added to the total number of points from the exam test (in every term): 4 courses x 5 points = maximum 20 points

·      these points are not added to point counts from individual subjects, but to the total number of points from the whole test

·      points from course tests can help you to succeed in the test or improve your result by one mark

·      exam marking: 

total number of points

139 and less

140 - 159

160 - 179

180 and more







Requirements for both the winter and summer semester CREDIT are the same: 

1. completed practicals

2. completed tasks in Moodle 3 (online, see Course: NEW - Cellular Basis of Medicine 2023/24 (

3. presented seminar works (= clinical detective stories and seminar papers)

4. credit test



 A list of all credit requirements, including whether or not you have already fulfilled the requirement, is available in the Vyuka app (see the "My Rating" button on the right of the blue bar labeled Cellular Basis of Medicine, i.e. you can find it right when you open the Cell module in the Vyuka app).


Credit requirements from BIOCHEMISTRY 

·         successfully completed practicals (= laboratory work: two in the course 1 – spectrophotometry, potentiometry - finished by written test, and one in the course 3 - glycemia): students have to be prepared for the practicals in advance (knowledge of the aim of the experiment and the theory of analytical methods used, including related chemical calculations and theory of that task), during the laboratory work they process a report on their practical and submit it to the teacher no later than 1 week after the practical

·         late arrival, missing laboratory coat, insufficient preparation for the practicals (even individually) means exclusion from the practical

·         in the case of distance teaching, the above applies, with the exception of own work in the laboratory: it is presented to students by video recording

·         the replacement of unfulfilled practicals takes place in the examination period of the given semester in the same form as the practicals in due time, students register for the substitute term in the application Registration

·         clinical detective stories (CDS 3,4,5,7,8) and the seminar paper in course 4 (essential substances necessary for development): students prepare for their presentation in advance (in case of CDS in working groups at the seminar) and present it at the relevant seminar to other students and the teacher

·         in the case of distance teaching, the above applies, the presentation does not take place in the classroom but online, streamed via MS Teams

·         replacement of unfulfilled CDS and the seminar paper takes place by the end of the 15th week of the given semester after agreement with his / her group teacher individually – if not, there will be one more chance during the examination period of the given semester in the form of one term for all such students together; the substitute form is the same as the performance in due time, students register for the substitute date in the examination period in the application Registration

·         Moodle tasks from biochemistry - always three tasks are prepared for each course (i.e. a total of 12 tasks in 4 courses) and must be completed by the deadline announced at Moodle

·         replacement of unfulfilled tasks in Moodle is possible only in the examination period (of the winter and summer semester), when all tasks will be again accessible to be fulfilled

In case the student fails any substitute term in the examination period, the alternative compensation will be solved individually with the group teacher: this is possible only if the student apologized to his / her teacher in advance from the regular dates and had a relevant reason for absence


Credit requirements from GENETICS 

1)       Elaboration of seminar work on given theme (selected genetic disorder) in the extent of 2-3 pages, including literature

In distance teachingstudent will sent seminar work to teacher assigned to given seminar by mail, in contact teachingstudent will present work on seminar according schedule 

2)       Participation on practices and clinical detective stories. 


Substitution for practice or clinical detective in case of absence:

Student will work out text on following topics and send it to teacher of practice or detective by mail


Winter semester:

Practice: Introduction to biological methodsMitosis, organelles of eukaryotic cell, microscope and rules of microscopic work

Cytogenetics practice I: Staining, microscopic technique: Barr body, the procedure of staining of Barr body, cytogenetic banding methods

Cytogenetics practice II: Karyotype:  Answers for all questions of the given presentation

Cytogenetic practice II: In vitro and in vivo systemsCell cultures (types), cell lines, the application of cell cultures in the science and in the medicine

Detective story CDS 2: Genealogy: Answers for questions concerning clinical cases, pedigree to the case III, calculation of all examples in the given presentation 


Summer semester:

Detective story CDS 6Diabetes mellitus:  Answers for all questions concerning diabetes (questions in the application “Vyuka”)

 Accomplish all duties till 15th week of each semester !


Credit requirements from HISTOLOGY

a) presence at least at 80 % of the practices

Substitution of practices:

- the absence from the practical lessons after a proper apology can be replaced by completing the practical lessons with another group after prior agreement with the teacher of the subject and only if the capacity of the room allows it

- in the case of participation in 70–80 % of the practices, the absence can be replaced by a written elaboration of the assigned task

- in the case of participation in 60–70 % of the practices, the absence can be replaced by written elaboration of 2 assigned tasks and examination of the required knowledge

- compensation for 60–80 % of the practices can only be done if the student provides the reason for his/her absence (e.g. by a doctor's certificate) 

- less than 60 % of practices cannot be accepted

b) completing Moodle tasks – is fulfilled continuously during the year at given dates (online), no later than by the end of each semester

c) slide test – the student will have the option of one regular attempt and 3 resit attempts. If a student fails to turn up for an exam, that specific attempt will expire (i.e., as if s/he was actually sitting the exam but failed), unless the student informs the examiner in advance  that s/he cannot attend for a serious reason.

Winter semester 

- it has only a written part (recognition of photographs of histological preparation). The regular term takes place in the 16th week. Two resit terms will be announced during the winter exam period. The third resit term will be announced in the SUMMER EXAMINATION PERIOD.

Summer semester

- it consists of 2 parts – written (recognition of photographs of histological preparation) and oral (examination of electronogram and microscope slide). The regular term takes place in the 15th week according to the schedule. Two resit attemps will be announced during the summer examination period in JUNE. The third resit term will be announced in the summer examination period in SEPTEMBER.

d) CDS 9 - submission by the end of the following teaching week (applies only to the summer semester)

e) fill out both the winter and the summer part of the Histology workbook


Credit requirements from MOLECULAR BIOLOGY


·         clinical detective story CDS 1: students prepare for the presentation in advance (in  working groups) and present it at the seminar to other students and the teacher

·         in the case of distance teaching, the above applies, the presentation does not take place in the classroom but online, streamed via MS Teams

·         replacement of unfulfilled CDS 1 takes place after agreement with the teacher individualy by the end of the winter semester


1) Requirements for MB practicals are listed below: 

a) Students are required to attend at least 80% of the lab practices and perform appropriately during the lab work.

b) Students are required to pass the written test. The test will be written during the lab practice.


Late arrival, as well as no lab coat, means exclusion from the lab practice.


2) Students can substitute the absence at lab practices or their part (after a regular apology) by attending the lab practice with another study group. To do that, students need permission from the leader of the lab practice. If no alternative exists on how to realize the lab practice or its part, students will be examined from practices content individually. Students have to inform the practice leader concerning his/her absence in practices in advance. If it is impossible, they have to do it as soon as possible.

3) Students are required to obtain at least 60% of all available test points to pass the test. The test will examine knowledge from lab practices and preceding theoretical lesson(s) that introduce practices. Students that fail the test will have two more attempts. During the exam period of the respective semester, four terms for lab practice test will be announced.

4) In case of distance teaching, students are also required to attend at least 80% of the online lab practices to get the credits. The presence of the students will be controlled at the beginning, as well as during the online lab practices. The online lab practice will contain a video demonstrating the planned lab work as well as an online lab practice test. Students that fail the practice test will have two more attempts. During the exam period of the respective semester, four terms for lab practice test will be announced.


Credit requirements from IMMUNOLOGY 

  • only credit tests of the module Cellular basis of medicine


SUMMARY of requirements for fulfilment of credit conditions and rules for their substitution in the whole module Cellular basis of medicine

1) practicals
: active participation and knowledge are assessed, a laboratory coat is required

  • biochemical practicals - processing of given tasks, laboratory reports, written test from practicals in the course 1
  • histological slides - worked-out workbook, test on slides
  • molecular biology practicals - processing of given tasks, written test
  • cytogenetics practicals - processing of given tasks

rules for substitution of practicals:

  • there are compensatory dates of practicals; written elaboration of missing task and testing is possible only in case of proved relevant reasons of absence (e.g. illness)


2) tasks in Moodle: performed continuously during the year (online), at the latest must be completed by the end of each semester


3) seminar papers: each paper content and oral presentation are assessed

  • clinical detective stories 1 - 9 - preparation in advance, active participation at seminars (= presentation and discussion)
  • seminar paper on inherited disorder (once in the academic year) - presentation at a seminar from genetics
  • seminar presentation on substances essential for development (once in the summer semester, course 4) - presentation at a seminar from biochemistry 

rules for substitution of seminar papers:

  • according to the individual requirements for each subject, see above


4) semestral credit tests: performance in the tests is assessed

  • each semestral test is divided into two course tests, which take place in a lecture hall using faculty´s iPADs in the application Moodle after each course during both semesters (i.e. 2 tests in the winter and 2 tests in the summer semester), you need to obtain at least 6 from 10 points each semester, the points are added to your exam result
  • if you do not perform adequately in the course tests you have to take the combined test from both courses of the semester at once (i.e. winter combined test and/or summer combined test), the points are NOT added to your exam results
  • you must be sign up in the SIS for the combined tests, which take place in a lecture hall using faculty´s iPADs (via Moodle) 

rules for substitution of tests:

  • there are three dates of combined tests (the winter combined test can be taken 2x in February and 1x in June; the summer combined test can be taken 2x in June and 1x in September
  • you must be sign up in the SIS for the combined tests 

CAUTION: the combined tests in June (winter test and the first summer test) are held after the first exam (= pre-term) date


For more information about individual teaching units see application Vyuka  (

In case of questions regarding the module use

Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (29.09.2023)
Syllabus -

Detailed information about lectures, seminars and practicals are available at

Courses of the winter semester                                                                                                                                                

  • Course 1  -  Cell structure and heredity
  • Course 2  -  Cell metabolism and specialisation                                                                                                                                                                 

Courses of the summer semester                                                                                                                                                 

  • Course 3 - Cell signalling and immunity                                                                 
  • Course 4 - Cell cycle and development             


The following list of lectures sumarizes topics from which test questions are randomly generated (see Requirements for the exam):

Course 1 - Cell structure and heredity

  • History of Life on Earth
  • Structure of prokaryotic cell
  • Genetics of prokaryotes
  • Structure of eukaryotic cell, organelles
  • Composition of intracellular fluid, pH
  • Laboratory analytical methods
  • Basic building blocks of cells
  • Structure and properties of proteins
  • Protein functions
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Overview of tissues
  • Epithelial tissues I (classification)
  • Structure of nucleic acids
  • Genetic code, genes, genome
  • Structure and function of cell nucleus, chromatin
  • Chromosomal basis of heredity
  • Origin of genetic variability
  • Principles of heredity, Mendelian principles
  • Gene linkage
  • Variability and changes of genetic information, mutations I
  • Variability and changes of genetic information, mutations II
  • Genetic determination of sex
  • Monogenic traits and disorders
  • Gene interactions
  • Multifactorial, polygenic traits and disorders
  • Phenotypes, genotypes, population genetics
  • Cytogenetics I – numerical chromosomal abnormalities
  • Cytogenetics II – structural chromosomal aberrations
  • Differences from Mendelian heredity – imprinting, dynamic mutations
  • Methods of chromosomal study, postnatal and prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis
  • Genetics in medicine, genetic counselling, prevention and treatment of genetic disorders
  • Structure and function of membranes
  • Transport across membranes, membrane potential
  • Intracellular transport of substances
  • Extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and cell junctions
  • Biotechnology, gene manipulations and gene therapy
  • Special methods of histology to distinguish tissues and cells
  • Methods of protein analysis I


Course 2 - Cell metabolism and specialisation

  • What fuels our cells?
  • Chemical reactions in metabolism
  • Enzymes
  • Coenzymes, vitamins, trace elements
  • Inhibition of enzymes, use in farmacology
  • Mitochondria - structure and origin
  • Electron transport chain and ATP formation
  • Krebs cycle
  • Epithelial tissues II (glandular epithelium)
  • Epithelial tissues III (barriers, transport)
  • Degradation and synthesis of glucose
  • Pentose phosphate cycle, metabolism of fructose and galactose
  • Degradation of lipids, ketone bodies
  • Energy storage in cells
  • Muscle tissue
  • Cell motility and molecular motors
  • Metabolism of amino acids I.
  • Metabolism of amino acids II.
  • Metabolism of muscle cells, muscle contraction
  • Regulation of metabolic pathways at the cellular level
  • Energy metabolism - the overview
  • Morphology of blood elements
  • Hemopoesis
  • Biochemistry of erythrocytes
  • Iron and heme metabolism
  • Biochemistry of leukocytes, thrombocytes and hemocoagulation
  • Components of blood plasma and their functions
  • Connective tissue
  • Metabolism of connective tissue
  • Cartilage, bone and ossification
  • Enzymopathy - inherited metabolic disorders
  • Biochemical correlations of monogenic disorders
  • Newborn screening
  • Extreme situations in cells


Course 3 - Cell signalling and immunity

  • Extracellular signalling
  • Extracellular signalling molecules
  • Cells producing signalling molecules
  • Steroids and their blood transport
  • Metabolism of hormones
  • Signal transfer into cell, membrane receptors
  • Intracellular signalling and signal execution
  • Signalling pathways I
  • Signalling pathways II
  • Signalling pathways III
  • Endocrine signalization and its disorders
  • Nervous tissue, structure of synapse
  • Nutrients as signalling molecules
  • Transmission of the information in the NS - the synapse, action potential
  • Synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters
  • Neurotransmitters and their receptors
  • Receptors in pharmacology
  • Pharmacology of signalling molecules
  • Function of immune system, natural and adaptive immunity
  • Cells of nonspecific immunity, phagocytosis
  • Leukocytes - surface molecules, cytokines, antibodies
  • Complement system and inflammation
  • Eicosanoids and the pharmacology of inflammation
  • MHC molecules, antigens
  • Tissues and organs of the immune system
  • B and T cells Development
  • Immune reactions based on T cells and NK cells
  • Immune reactions based on B cells and antibodies
  • Methods of protein analysis II
  • Immunogenetics
  • Inherited disorders of immunity
  • Methods for testing immune response


Course 4 - Cell cycle and development

  • Cell Cycle
  • Regulation of cell cycle
  • Metabolism of nucleotides
  • DNA replication and reparation
  • Transcription and translation
  • Methods of DNA analysis I
  • Regulation of gene expression
  • Methods of DNA analysis II
  • Gametogenesis and fertilization
  • Cell differentiation and senescence
  • Apoptosis
  • Regulation of apoptosis
  • Blastogenesis, implantation, placenta
  • Notogenesis, neurulation
  • Embryonal development
  • Regulation of early development
  • Human reproductive genetics, preimplantation diagnosis
  • Developmental toxicology, pharmacotherapy during pregnancy
  • Renewal and repair
  • Stem cells, organ substitution
  • Biochemistry of ageing (ROS, glacation)
  • General toxicology
  • Biotransformation of xenobiotics
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Mutagenes and carcinogenes in environment
  • Structure of viruses
  • Interactions of viruses with cell
  • Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
  • Chromosomes and tumors
  • Cellular transformation and tumor cells
  • Oncogenetics, precancerous conditions and familial tumors
  • Principles of cancer therapy
  • Human genetics
  • Human epigenetics
  • Molecular and genetic mechanisms of evolution
  • Human evolution
Last update: Kvasnicová Vladimíra, Mgr. (01.10.2021)
Entry requirements -

Biology and chemistry knowledge on the secondary school level.

Last update: Samcová Eva, prof. RNDr., CSc. (08.12.2011)
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